Linaria dalmatica ssp. dalmatica
Other Common Names: Balkan toadflax, broadleaf toadflax
Weed class: B
Year Listed: 1988
Native to: The Dalmatian coast of the former Yugoslavia to Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Crete, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Syria, Iran, and Iraq.
Is this Weed Toxic?:
not known to be
This plant is also on the Washington State quarantine list. It is prohibited to transport, buy, sell, offer for sale, or distribute plants or plant parts of quarantined species into or within the state of Washington or to sell, offer for sale, or distribute seed packets of seed, flower seed blends, or wildflower mixes of quarantined species into or within the state of Washington. Please see WAC 16-752 for more information on the quarantine list. For questions about the quarantine list, contact the Washington State Department of Agriculture's Plant Services Program at (360) 902-1874 or email PlantServices@agr.wa.gov.
Why Is It a Noxious Weed?
Mature plants are strongly competitive, especially with shallow-rooted perennials and winter annuals. Dalmatian toadflax causes negative impacts in pastures, rangelands, and natural areas, where it outcompetes natives or other desirable species.
How would I identify it?
Dalmatian toadflax is a short-lived, perennial herb, 2.6 feet to 5 feet tall with light green leaves and yellow snapdragon-like flowers.
Flowers are bright yellow, tinged with orange and resemble snapdragon flowers. The petals have 2 lips. The upper lip is 2 lobed and the lower lip is 3 lobed. Individual flowers occur on long racemes.
Leaves are heart-shaped, light green and waxy. They are alternately arranged and lack petioles (leave stems) and appear to clasp the stem.
Stems are stout and upright, branching toward the top.
Fruit Seed Description
Capsules that are 0.28 to 0.31 inches long, egg to cylinder shaped with many small seeds.
May Be Confused With
Yellow toadflax, Linaria vulgaris, is very similar in appearance. If you need help with plant identification, please contact your county noxious weed coordinator.
Where does it grow?
Dalmatian toadflax can be found on roadsides, in pastures, rangeland and waste areas. Please click here to see a county level distribution map of Dalmatian toadflax in Washington.
How Does it Reproduce?
Dalmatian toadflax spreads by horizontal or creeping rootstocks as well as by seed. A mature plant can produce up to 500,000 seeds.
How Do I Control It?
Hand-pulling and digging can be effective on small patches and can result in eradication if done consistently for 5-6 years.
Intensive clean cultivation can effectively control Dalmatian toadflax. Cultivation methods must continue for at least two years, with eight to ten cultivations in the first year and four to five in the next year.
The toadflax stem weevil, Mecinus janthinus is a biocontrol agent used in Washington state to control Dalmatian toadflax. Mecinus janthinus's larvae feed (or mine) within the plant's stems, which inhibits the transportation of nutrients, resulting in premature wilting of shoots and reduced flower production. Adults also feed on leaves and stems and can suppress plant growth. For more information about the biological control of Dalmatian toadflax, please visit WSU Extension Integrated Weed Control Project.
Please refer to the PNW Weed Management Handbook, or contact your county noxious weed coordinator.
For More Information
See our Written Findings for more information about Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica ssp.dalmatica).
Report on Dalmatian toadflax from the book "Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States"
Cowlitz County NWCB Fact Sheet on Dalmatian toadflax
Thurston County NWCB Fact Sheet on Dalmatian toadflax
King County NWCB Fact Sheet on Dalmatian toadflax
Asotin County NWCB Fact Sheet on Dalmatian toadflax
Spokane County NWCB Fact Sheet on Dalmatian toadflax
Pierce County NWCB Fact Sheet on Dalmatian toadflax
Control Options for Dalmatian toadflax from King County NWCB
Dalmatian toadflax information from the UW Herbarium image database